역사-영화로서 전기 영화의 성찰적 재현 <아임 낫 데어>, <라스트 데이즈>, <블루>, <거짓의 F>를 중심으로 > Q&A

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역사-영화로서 전기 영화의 성찰적 재현 <아임 낫 데어>, <라스트 데이즈>, <블루>, &…

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작성자 오나라 작성일20-06-30 14:18 조회1회 댓글0건

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역사-영화로서 전기 영화의 성찰적 재현
<아임 낫 데어>, <라스트 데이즈>, <블루>, <거짓의 F>를 중심으로


연세대학교 커뮤니케이션대학원
영상예술학 전공
최 진 성
2011년 7월 일



감사의 글
 “누군가가 요제프 K를 중상한 것이 분명했다. 왜냐하면 그는 아무런 나쁜 짓도 하지
않았는데, 어느 날 아침 체포되었으니까 말이다.”
 - 카프카 <심판>의 첫 두 문장
카프카가 말한 ‘체포된 자’로서 삶이 ‘인생’임을 받아들인 후, 그렇다면 어떻게 살
아야할 것인가,를 질문하던 와중에 내가 그나마 가장 좋아하는 ‘영화’를 인문학 삼
아 공부하고 싶어서 선택한 곳이 바로 이 곳이었습니다. 그리고 선생님들과 함께
책을 읽고, 영화를 보면서 ‘공부’하는 삶이 소중한 것임을 깨달아갔던 것 같습니
다. 비록 ‘체포된 자’이긴 하지만, 영화와 문학, 그리고 예술을 통해서 누릴 수 있
는 상상력과 은총을 깨달아 갔고, 이를 통해 자유를 꿈꾸는 법을 ‘공부’했던 시간
들이었습니다. 그러한 공부의 결과로서 이 글들이 겨우 묶여지게 되었습니다. 그간 저의 공부를
이끌어 주신 선생님들께 감사의 말씀을 드립니다. 우선 4년 간 제 논문과 작품의
길잡이가 되어주시고 공부가 무엇인지 삶으로 보여주신, 지도교수님인 이윤영 선
생님께 감사드립니다. 논문 원고가 나올 때마다 페이지에 일일이 부족한 점들을
기록해서 보여주신 선생님의 정성이 없었다면 저한테는 아마 불가능한 작업이었
을 것입니다. 부족한 논문과 작품을 비판과 격려로 심사하며 이끌어 주신 서현석
선생님, 박효신 선생님, 김동원 감독님, 이남희 선생님께 깊이 감사드립니다. 또한
지도와 더불어 ‘삶을 통한 영화’란 무엇인가를 언제나 온 몸으로 가르쳐주시는 김
동원 감독님께 다시 한 번 감사드리고, 여러 강의를 통해 새로운 질문을 던지게
해주신 서현석 선생님께도 다시 한 번 감사드립니다. 박사과정 중 강의를 통해 공부하는 법을 친절하게, 그리고 꼼꼼하게 일러주신 전
규찬 선생님, 정성철 선생님, 그리고 대학원의 이상길 선생님께도 감사드립니다. 그리고 대학 밖에서 저에게 문학과 철학을 깊이 있게 읽어주신 철학자 양운덕 선
생님과 철학 아카데미의 김진영 선생님께도 감사드립니다. 석사 과정 지도교수님
인 김용수 선생님께도 다시 한 번 감사드립니다. 석사 과정 시절, 김용수 선생님
의 지도와 배려가 없었다면 지금의 저는 없을 것입니다. 그리고 바쁜 와중에도 초
록의 영문번역을 꼼꼼하게 해 준 황혜림 프로듀서에게도 감사드립니다. 마지막으
로 전기적 인물을 성찰적으로 재현하는 것에 대한 본 논문의 질문에 제 방식대로
실천하고 응답한 ‘모던 보이 이상(李霜)’에 대한 영화 <이상,한가역반응>에 기꺼이
함께 해준 배우 윤동환, 현지예님과 촬영감독 김구영, 그리고 스탭들인 노영규, 김
창훈, 백경원, 문수영, 문지혜, 표용수, 문정수, 박지형, 이학민님께 다시 한번 감사의
말씀을 전합니다. 마지막으로 존경하는 부모님께 항상 죄송한 마음과 함께 깊은 감사와 사랑을 전
합니다.
- 2011년, 7월 최진성 드림.
- i -



목 차
국문요약 ···························································································································· ⅳ
제1장 서론 ························································································································· 1
 1.1 문제제기 및 연구목적 ························································································· 2
 1.2 연구방법 ················································································································· 3
제2장 전기 영화의 문제 ································································································· 7
 2.1 내러티브의 문제 : 신화화 ·················································································· 7
 2.2 스타일의 문제 : 시각적 환영성 ······································································ 14
제3장 역사-영화적 상상력 ·························································································· 17
 3.1 역사적 상상력의 전유 ······················································································· 20
 3.1.1 카를로 긴즈부르그의 ‘실마리 찾기’ ······················································· 20
 3.1.2 클리퍼드 기어츠의 ‘두꺼운 묘사’ ····························································· 24
 3.1.3 로제 샤르티에의 ‘기원이라는 이름의 망상(혹은 괴물)’ ······················ 28
 3.1.4 존 루이스 개디스의 ‘마음을 소유한 분자’ ··········································· 32
 3.2 역사-영화적 상상력 ·························································································· 39
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제4장 전기 영화의 성찰성 ························································································· 46
 4.1 전기적 주체에 대한 성찰 ················································································· 48
 4.1.1 가스통 바슐라르의 로트레아몽 전기 비판 ··········································· 49
 4.1.2 롤랑 바르트가 쓴 롤랑 바르트 ······························································· 60
 4.2 영화 매체에 대한 성찰 ····················································································· 78
제5장 성찰적 전기 영화 분석 ····················································································· 85
 5.1 내러티브 ··············································································································· 87
 5.1.1 아임 낫 데어 : 변신 ·················································································· 88
 5.1.2 라스트 데이즈 : 죽음에서 탄생 ······························································ 96
 5.1.3 블루 : 맹인 ································································································ 107
 5.1.4 거짓의 F : 거짓과 진실 ········································································· 116
 5.2 스타일 : 재현 양식 ························································································· 121
 5.2.1 몽타주 ········································································································· 122
 5.2.1.1 아임 낫 데어 ················································································· 122
 5.2.1.2 라스트 데이즈 ··············································································· 138
 5.2.1.3 거짓의 F ························································································· 154
 5.2.2 미장센 ········································································································· 165
 5.2.2.1 아임 낫 데어 ················································································· 165
 5.2.2.2 라스트 데이즈 ··············································································· 174
 5.2.2.3 블루 ································································································· 182
 5.2.3 사운드 ········································································································· 189
 5.2.3.1 아임 낫 데어 ················································································· 189
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 5.2.3.2. 라스트 데이즈 ·············································································· 196
 5.2.3.3. 블루 ································································································ 206
제6장 결론 ···················································································································· 216
부록 : 졸업 작품 <이상,한가역반응>에 대한 노트 ············································· 219
참고 문헌 ······················································································································· 225
ABSTRACT ·················································································································· 229
- iv -



국문요약
 역사-영화로서 전기 영화의 성찰적 재현
전기 영화에서 전기적 인물을 재현하는 문제는 허구적인 캐릭터를 재현하는 것
과 전혀 다른 성찰이 필요하다. 이는 전기적 인물의 진실과 본질, 그리고 자유에
대한 존재론적인 문제가 따라오기 때문이다. 그러나 전통적 전기 영화는 감동을
원하는 관객들의 요구와 제작투자사들의 상업적인 요구로 인해 전기 영화의 내러
티브와 시각적 환영성은 이중적으로 전기적 인물을 신화화하는 문제를 안고 있다. 전통적 전기 영화의 주인공들은 할리우드 양식의 멜로드라마 속 주인공들과 같은
플롯으로 재구성된다. 그리고 이 ‘멜로 드라마’는 영화의 시각성을 통해 다시 한
번 환영적으로 강화된다. 이런 식으로 전통적 전기 영화 속의 전기적 인물은 마치
멜로드라마 속의 영웅적, 혹은 비극적 주인공으로 재현된다. 이러한 전통적 전기 영화들이 갖고 있는 재미와 전기적 인물들에 대한 정보는
관객입장에서 여러모로 유용하다. 그러나 전통적 전기 영화들이 전기적 인물이라
는 인간 존재에 대해서 얼마만큼 성찰적으로 접근하고 있는지에 대해서는 적극적
으로 질문해 볼 필요가 있다. 멜로드라마 플롯의 주인공이 되어버린 전기적 인물
은 존재의 진실과 고유성을 잃어버리는 대가를 치르게 되기 때문이다. 그러므로
전기적 인물의 재현에 대한 역사적이고, 영화적인 성찰은 인간 존재에 대한 윤리
적, 철학적인 성찰의 문제가 된다. 그러므로 전기적 인물을 성찰하는 전기 영화는
허구적 캐릭터를 영화화하는 문제보다 훨씬 더 창의성이 요구되는 작업이 된다. 전기적 인물의 진실을 보여주기 위해서는 인물에 대한 역사적인 성찰과 더불어
이를 영화적으로 재현하기 위한 영화적인 성찰이 동시에 요구되기 때문이다. 본 논문에서는 전기적 인물의 성찰적 재현을 위해 서사인 내러티브와 이에 대한
재현 양식인 스타일이라는 두 가지 범주를 통해 성찰해 나갈 것이다. 우선 첫 번
째 범주로서 전기영화 내러티브를 살펴본다. 보통 연대기순으로 정리된 전기적 인
- v -
물의 내러티브는 결국 멜로드라마의 내러티브로 환원되면서 동시에 신화화된다. 역시나 전기적 인물의 고유성과 진실은 양식화된 내러티브를 통해 멜로드라마 스
타일의 통속적이고 보편적인 인물로 환원된다. 이것이 전기와 전기영화의 내러티
브가 공통적으로 갖고 있는 문제다. 전기 영화를 성찰적으로 재현하기 숙고하는 두 번째 범주는 전기영화의 스타일
에 대한 것이다. 본 논문에서 영화의 스타일은 크게 두 가지 범주로서 세분화할
수 있는데 첫째는 이미지에 대한 문제이고, 두 번째는 사운드에 대한 문제다. 우
선 영화의 이미지에 대한 문제는 영화의 시각성에 대한 문제로서, 이는 기본적으
로 영화의 환영성과 투명성의 문제이다. 전기적 인물 재현에서 영화의 환영성은
재현된 인물을 투명하게 만듦으로써 관객들이 전기 영화 속 인물을 ‘사실적으로’ 받아들이게 하는 힘이 있다. 그러나 여기서 투명하게 재현된 인물은 전기영화 내
러티브를 통해 신화적으로 재구성된 인물을 다시 한 번 환영적으로 투명하게 만
드는 것이기에 이중적인 문제를 갖게 된다. 또한 영화의 시각적 환영성을 강화시
켜주는 장치인 사운드에 대해 성찰하고자 한다. 영화의 사운드가 일반적 전기 영
화에서처럼 시각적 환영성을 강화시켜주는 환영적 사운드로 자리매김하는 것이
아니라, 시각적 환영성으로의 몰입을 넘어서고 깨뜨리는 주요한 성찰적 장치로서
기능하고 있음을 분석해 나갈 것이다. 요컨대 본 논문은 전기영화의 성찰적 재현을 위한 구상으로 크게 내러티브와 스
타일 범주를 중심으로 이야기해 나갈 것이다. 이를 위해서 ‘작은 것의 역사’로서
새로운 역사적 상상력들을 통해 전기적 인물을 추적할 것이고, 더불어 가스통 바
슐라르와 롤랑 바르트의 전기적 주체와 내러티브에 대한 성찰을 적극적으로 검토
할 것이고, 이와 더불어 전기 영화 매체의 성찰성이라는 개념을 통해서 영화들을
분석해 나갈 것이다. 더불어 본 논문에서 제기하는 전기 영화의 성찰을 위해서
‘역사-영화’와 ‘역사-영화적 상상력’라는 개념을 제기하게 될 것이다. 여기서 말하
는 ‘역사-영화’는 보통의 ‘역사 영화’와는 전혀 다른 의미를 지니고 있음을 설명해
나갈 것이고, 이런 프레임을 통해 전기 영화의 성찰적 재현에 문제를 제기해 나갈
것이다. 이를 통해 전기 영화라는 영화의 하부 장르가 역사적 상상력과 영화적 상상력이 
- vi -
교차하는 독특한 영화 예술의 장임을 얘기하고자 한다. ‘역사-영화’로서 성찰적
전기 영화는 ‘영화’라는 예술과 ‘전기적 인물’이라는 존재의 본질에 대해서 공히
성찰하고 있는 영화이며, 나아가서 대안적 역사 쓰기로서 역사 영화의 가능성을
이야기해 나가고자 한다.
 핵심어 : 전기 영화, 역사 영화, 역사-영화, 성찰성, 역사적 상상력, 영화적 상상
력, 전기적 주체, 신화화, 탈신화화, 환영성, 시각성, 대안적 역사 쓰기, 자서전, 아
임 낫 데어, 라스트 데이즈, 블루, 거짓의 F, 토드 헤인즈, 구스 반 산트, 데릭 저
먼, 오손 웰즈, 롤랑 바르트, 가스통 바슐라르 
- 1 -



제1장 서론
 1.1 문제제기 및 연구목적
전기적 인물을 재현하는 문제는 허구적인 캐릭터를 재현하는 문제와 질적으로
다른 성찰이 필요하다. 이는 인간 존재의 진실, 그리고 자유에 대한 존재론적인
문제가 개입되기 때문이다. 그런 의미에서 전기 영화의 재현은 역사적이면서, 철
학적이고, 동시에 윤리적인 문제가 개입된다. 전기적 인물을 주인공으로 하는 영
화들은 사실적인 감동을 원하는 관객들의 요구와 이에 대한 제작자들의 상업적인
고려로 인해 꾸준히 제작되고 있는 바다. 그러나 할리우드 스튜디오 시스템을 기
반으로 한 전통적인 전기 영화의 내러티브와 시각적 환영성은 이중적으로 전기적
인물을 신화화하는 문제를 안고 있다. 전통적 전기 영화의 주인공들은 할리우드
양식의 멜로드라마 속 주인공들과 비슷한 플롯 공식 속에서 재구성된다. 그리고
이 환영적으로 재구성된 ‘드라마’는 영화의 시각성을 통해 다시 한 번 환영적으로
강화된다. 이런 식으로 전통적 전기 영화 속의 전기적 인물은 일종의 멜로드라마
나 영웅 드라마의 주인공처럼 재현된다. 이렇게 신화화된 전기적 인물의 탄생은
일반적인 제작자나 관객 모두가 원하는 바다. 관객은 전기 영화를 통해 짧은 시간
안에 ‘사실적인 감동’을 받기 원하고, 제작자들은 이러한 감동을 주는 대신에 이윤
을 얻길 원하기 때문이다. 물론 이러한 전통적이고 일반적인 전기 영화들이 갖고 있는 대중적인 재미와 전
기적 인물들에 대한 연대기적 정보는 유용한 측면이 있다. 관객들은 전기 영화를
통해 잘 모르던 전기적 인물에 대한 정보를 획득하고 동시에 그를 통한 영화적인
재미와 감동을 누리게 된다. 그러나 전통적 전기 영화들이 전기적 인물에 대해서
얼마만큼 성찰적으로 접근하고 있는지에 대해서는 적극적으로 질문해 볼 필요가
있다. 물론 전기적 인물의 전기적 사건에 의거한 ‘사실적인 데이터’로 이야기를 재
구성하기 때문에 많은 부분 사실성과 객관성을 담지한다고 말할 수는 있겠지만
이는 결국엔 신화화될 수밖에 없다. 왜냐하면 일종의 멜로드라마 플롯의 주인공이 
- 2 -
되어버린 전기적 인물은 불가피하게 존재의 진실과 고유성의 상실이라는 대가를
치를 수밖에 없기 때문이다. 그런 의미에서 본 논문의 전기적 인물 재현에 대한
성찰은 인간 존재에 대한 윤리적이고 철학적인 성찰이기도 하다. 그렇다면 전기적
인물을 어떻게 성찰적으로 재현할 수 있을 것인가를 질문해야 한다. 이를 위해서 전기 영화를 연출하는 감독의 역할이 더욱 중요해진다. 전기적 인물
에 대한 성찰적인 영화는 허구적 캐릭터를 영화화하는 문제보다 훨씬 더 창의성
이 요구되는 작업이다. 전기적 인물의 진실을 보여주기 위해서는 인물에 대한 존
재론적이면서도 역사적인 성찰과 더불어 이를 영화적으로 재현하기 위한 영화적
인 성찰이 동시에 요구되기 때문이다. 본 논문에서는 전기 영화의 성찰을 위한 가
능성에 대해 역사적이고 영화적인 측면 모두에서 다각도로 질문해 나갈 것이고, 마지막으로 창의적인 성찰이 돋보이는 전기 영화 텍스트들을 구체적으로 분석해
나갈 것이다. 이는 각각 밥 딜런에 대한 <아임 낫 데어>1), 커트 코베인에 대한
<라스트 데이즈>2), 데릭 저먼 감독 자신의 자전적 영화 <블루>3), 그리고 오손
웰즈 감독의 전기 영화에 대한 영화 <거짓의 F>4)다. 이 네 편의 영화는 서로 전
혀 다른 영화적 내러티브와 스타일로 전기적 인물을 재현한다. 네 감독들이 연출
한 전기적 인물의 창의적인 재현은 관객에게 전기적 인물과 전기 영화의 재현에
대한 성찰을 동시적으로 하게 만든다. 즉 감독이 고민한 인간 존재와 영화에 대한
성찰이 고스란히 관객의 성찰로 이어지게 하는 텍스트들인 것이다. 이 네 편의 영
화는 전기적 인물을 투명하게 신화적으로 재현하는 전통적 전기 영화 양식을 성
찰적으로 극복하고 있다. 논자는 이 네 편의 전기 영화들이 전기적 인물을 성찰적
으로 재현하는 전략을 통해 주인공들의 고유성과 진실을 드러내려 애쓰며, 이를
통해 존재를 성공적으로 탈신화화하고 있음을 살펴 볼 것이다.
1) 토드 헤인즈, <아임 낫 데어 I'm not there>, 미국, 독일, 2007, 135분. 2) 구스 반 산트, <라스트 데이즈 Last Days>, 미국, 2005, 96분. 3) 데릭 저먼, <블루 blue>, 영국, 1993, 79분. 4) 오손 웰즈, <거짓의 F F for fake>, 프랑스, 이란, 독일, 1975, 85분.
- 3 -
 1.2 연구방법
본 논문에서 전기 영화 속의 전기적 인물에 대한 영화적 성찰에 집중하는 것은
이 질문이 미학적인 질문인 동시에 윤리적이고 철학적인 질문과 연결되어 있기
때문이다. 본 논문에서는 전기적 인물의 성찰적 재현을 위해 서사인 내러티브와
이에 대한 재현 양식인 스타일이라는 두 가지 범주를 통해 성찰해 나갈 것이다. 우선 첫 번째 범주로서 전기영화 내러티브를 살펴본다. 전기영화의 내러티브는 전
기 내러티브의 문제와 궤를 같이 한다. 전통적 전기에서 전기적 인물의 글쓰기를
통한 재현은 마찬가지로 신화화와 영웅화의 문제를 내포한다. 연대기순으로 정리
된 전기적 인물의 내러티브는 결국 멜로드라마의 내러티브로 환원되면서 동시에
신화화된다. 역시나 전기적 인물의 고유성과 진실은 양식화된 내러티브를 통해 멜
로드라마 스타일의 통속적이고 보편적인 인물로 환원된다. 이것이 전기와 전기영
화의 내러티브가 공통적으로 갖고 있는 문제다. 우선 첫 번째 범주인 전기 내러티브의 신화화에 대한 문제를 성찰하기 위해 우
선 근대의 역사기술에 대한 성찰로 역사학계에서 대두된 새로운 역사적 상상력을
제안하는 논의를 살펴볼 것이다. 전기는 역사학의 하부 장르로서 역사적 글쓰기에
대한 변화와 무관할 수 없기 때문이다. 최근의 역사가들이 거대 서사가 아닌 ‘작
은 것의 역사’에 관심을 갖고 제안한 새로운 역사적 상상력의 개념들은 전기적 인
물을 다시 쓰기 위한 상상력으로 가져올 수 있을 것이다. 또한 이러한 역사적 상상력의 제안들을 전기 내러티브로 재구성하기 위해 전기
적 주체에 대한 두 작가들의 성찰들을 살펴볼 것이다. 하나는 가스통 바슐라르의
로트레아몽 전기 비판이고, 다른 하나는 롤랑 바르트의 자서전 쓰기에 대한 것이
다. 이들은 전기 비평의 언어로 구성되는 전기적 주체에 대해 비슷한 지점에서 회
의를 하고 있지만 이들이 이를 극복하며 새로운 전기적 주체와 내러티브를 재구
성하기 위해 제안하고 있는 논점들은 서로 다르다. 그러나 이들이 공히 극복하고
자 하는 것은 전통적 전기 내러티브 속에서 구성된 전기적 주체의 신화화와 그에
따른 왜곡에 대한 것이다. 앞서 언급한 ‘작은 것의 역사’에 주목하는 역사적 상상
력의 제안들을 전기 쓰기를 위한 상상력으로 가져오는 것과 더불어 두 작가의 전
- 4 -
기적 주체와 내러티브에 대한 성찰은 전기 내러티브를 영화라는 예술적인 작업으
로 전유하기 위한 아이디어로서 주목할 만하다. 전기 영화를 성찰적으로 재현하기 숙고하는 두 번째 범주는 전기영화의 스타일
에 대한 것이다. 전기영화 내러티브의 문제가 전기 내러티브의 문제와 직접적으로
연결되어 있다면, 전기영화 스타일의 문제는 영화의 스타일의 문제와 연결되어 있
다. 본 논문에서 영화의 스타일은 크게 두 가지 범주로서 세분화할 수 있는데 첫
째는 이미지에 대한 문제이고, 두 번째는 사운드에 대한 문제다. 우선 영화의 이
미지에 대한 문제는 영화의 시각성에 대한 문제로서, 이는 기본적으로 영화의 환
영성과 투명성의 문제이다. 본문에서는 구체적으로 영화의 환영성을 구축하는 시
각성에 대한 분석을 해나갈 것이다. 영화의 환영적 시각성은 내러티브의 신화화
문제와는 다른 차원에서 신화화의 문제를 안겨준다. 전기적 인물 재현에서 영화의
환영성은 재현된 인물을 투명하게 만듦으로써 관객들이 전기 영화 속 인물을 ‘사
실적으로’ 받아들이게 하는 힘이 있다. 그러나 여기서 투명하게 재현된 인물은 전
기영화 내러티브를 통해 신화적으로 재구성된 인물을 다시 한 번 환영적으로 투
명하게 만드는 것이기에 이중적인 문제를 갖게 된다. 전기영화 시나리오의 내러티
브에서 신화화된 인물이 영화의 환영적 장치를 통해 더욱 더 투명하게 사실적인
인물로 강화되는 것이다. 이런 이유로 관객은 전기의 인물보다 전기영화의 인물을
더욱 ‘사실적으로’ 몰입하며 받아들이게 된다. 본 논문에서는 이렇게 내러티브의
신화화와 스타일의 환영성이라는 이중겹으로 만들어진 전통적 전기 영화의 인물
을 성찰적으로 재현하기 위한 질문을 해나갈 것이다. 이를 시각적인 차원에서는
몽타주와 미장센의 범주로 구분해서 분석할 것이고, 또한 영화의 시각적 환영성을
강화시켜주는 장치인 사운드에 대해 성찰하고자 한다. 영화의 사운드가 일반적 전
기 영화에서처럼 시각적 환영성을 강화시켜주는 환영적 사운드로 자리매김하는
것이 아니라, 시각적 환영성으로의 몰입을 넘어서고 깨뜨리는 주요한 성찰적 장치
로서 기능하고 있음을 분석해 나갈 것이다. 본 논문이 이렇게 다양한 분석과 제안을 통해서 다다르려고 하는 것은 결국 전
기 영화의 성찰성이다. 전기 영화의 성찰성 개념은 크게 두 가지 차원에 대한 성
찰로 이뤄진다. 첫째는 전기적 주체에 대한 성찰이다. 여기서 전기적 주체는 근대
- 5 -
적 주체에 대한 문제와 이어진다. 전기 영화에서 주체에 대한 문제는 전기 영화감
독이라는 저자에 대한 성찰과 더불어 그가 재구성한 전기적 인물이라는 주체에
대한 성찰이 이중적으로 필요하다. 이렇게 두 가지 차원의 전기적 주체에 대한 성
찰성을 중심으로 전기 영화 텍스트들을 접근해 나갈 것이다. 전기적 주체에 대한
성찰과 더불어 이뤄져야 하는 것은 영화 매체에 대한 성찰이다. 영화의 매체적 속
성은 기본적으로 환영성에 근거하는데 전기 영화를 성찰적으로 접근하기 위해서
영화 매체의 속성에 대한 진지한 성찰이 중요해진다. 이렇게 전기 영화의 주체에
대한 성찰과 영화 매체에 대한 성찰은 궁극적으로 관객의 성찰로까지 이어지게
될 것이다. 요컨대 본 논문은 전기영화의 성찰적 재현을 위한 구상으로 크게 내러티브와 스
타일 범주를 중심으로 이야기해 나갈 것이다. 이를 위해서 ‘작은 것의 역사’로서
새로운 역사적 상상력들을 통해 전기적 인물을 추적할 것이고, 더불어 가스통 바
슐라르와 롤랑 바르트의 전기적 주체와 내러티브에 대한 성찰을 적극적으로 검토
할 것이고, 이와 더불어 전기 영화 매체의 성찰성이라는 개념을 통해서 영화들을
분석해 나갈 것이다. 마지막으로 제목에서 쓰였으며 본문에서 자주 쓰일 ‘역사-영화’와 ‘역사-영화적
상상력’라는 개념에 대해서 말하고자 한다. 본 논문에서 중요한 개념으로 활용될
‘역사-영화’라는 개념은 ‘역사 영화’라는 말과는 전혀 다른 의미를 지닌다. ‘역사
영화’는 역사적 사건을 소재로 하는 영화로서 전통적 의미에서 사극이나 역사극을
의미하는 ‘역사 영화’를 말한다. 이는 보편적 의미에서 ‘역사적 사건을 소재로 하
는 영화’를 의미할 수도 있지만 실은 많은 ‘역사 영화’들은 ‘영화’를 만들기 위해
소재적으로 ‘역사’를 차용하는데 머무르는 것도 사실이다. 그러나 본 논문에서 주
요 개념으로 사용할 ‘역사-영화’는 이와는 다른 의미를 내포한다. ‘역사-영화’는
‘역사’를 흥미로운 소재나 에피소드로 차용하는 ‘역사 영화’와는 달리 일종의 ‘대안
적 역사 쓰기’로서 ‘역사’를 ‘영화’로 재현하는 것을 말한다. 그러므로 ‘역사-영화’ 에서는 역사를 소재적으로 차용해서 흥미로운 이야기를 만들어 내는 것이 주된
목적이 아니라 역사가와 마찬가지의 엄밀한 ‘역사적 상상력’이 요구되며 이를 영
화적 재현으로 연출하는 ‘영화적 상상력’이 동시에 요구된다. 그런 의미에서 ‘역사
- 6 -
-영화’를 연출하는 영화 감독은 역사가와 마찬가지의 고민을 한다고 할 수 있다. 그러나 ‘역사 영화’와 ‘역사-영화’를 대립되는 개념으로 사용하는 것은 아니다. ‘역
사 영화’는 본 논문이 제안하는 ‘역사-영화’를 포함하는 일반적 의미에서 ‘역사’를
소재로 하는 ‘영화’를 의미하는 것이라고 볼 수 있다. 그러나 모든 ‘역사 영화’가
‘역사-영화’는 아닐 것이다. 본 논문에서는 엄밀한 ‘역사-영화적인 상상력’을 통해
일종의 ‘대안적 역사 쓰기’로서 역사를 영화적으로 재현하는 ‘역사 영화’를 ‘역사- 영화’라고 개념화하고자 한다. 그러므로 본 논문이 주목하는 ‘성찰적 전기 영화’는
‘역사-영화적 상상력’을 통해 전기적 인물을 영화적으로 재현하고자 하는 전기 영
화를 일컫는 것이며 그런 의미에서 ‘성찰적 전기 영화’는 ‘역사-영화’이기도 하
다.5)
5) 본 논문이 제안하는 개념인 ‘역사-영화’는 본문에서 언급될 마크 페로의 ‘역사-픽션’과는 전혀 다
른 의미를 띤다. 페로가 말하는 ‘역사-픽션’은 역사를 영화화하는데 있어서 다소 부정적 재현 방식
을 의미하는데 이는 본 논문이 전통적 전기 영화를 비판하는 것과 마찬가지 맥락에서 ‘역사-픽션’ 이 ‘멜로드라마나 비극’의 플롯 양식을 추종하고 있기 때문이다. 
- 7 -
제2장 전기 영화의 문제
 2.1 내러티브의 문제 : 신화화
본 장에서는 전통적 전기 영화의 문제를 크게 내러티브와 스타일이라는 두 범주
로 구분해서 각각의 문제들을 짚어 나가고자 한다. 우선 전기영화 내러티브의 문
제를 살펴보자. 전기영화의 내러티브는 전기영화의 시나리오에 대한 것이다. 전기
영화를 연출하기 위해서 사전에 미리 쓰여지는 시나리오의 내러티브 구조는 전기
의 내러티브 구조와 비슷한 양식을 띠고 있다. 그러므로 전기영화의 내러티브 구
조에서 발생하는 문제점을 분석하기 위해서 전기 내러티브의 문제를 살펴보려고
한다. 일반적으로 전기는 실존했던 탁월한 인물에 대한 객관적이고 구체적인 자료로
인식되면서 수많은 독자들의 삶에 영향을 끼쳐 왔다. 우선 일반적 전기 쓰기에 들
어갈 주요 항목은 대체로 다음과 같다. 전기적 인물의 탄생과 죽음의 연대, 성장
과정과 배경, 가계, 외모, 주요 사건, 인간성, 업적과 그에 대한 평가 등이다. 이러
한 전기적 요소들을 가지고 전기를 써 내려갈 때 가장 중요한 것은 교훈성이다. 이를 위해 전기적 인물에 대한 긍정적인 평가를 염두하고 선택하는 경향이 있
다.6) 이런 식의 교과서적인 전기 쓰기 양식은 전통적 전기의 내러티브에서 공통
적으로 지향하는 바다. 교훈성이라는 목표 아래 전기적 인물의 삶의 주요 요소들
을 연대기적이면서도 유기적으로 정리한 후에 종국에는 총체적으로 삶을 비평하
는 식으로 마무리를 한다. 이러한 전통적 전기 내러티브 양식은 전통적 전기 영화의 내러티브에서도 마찬
가지로 나타난다. 전기 영화 역시 전기적 인물의 삶을 통해 관객에게 교훈과 감동
을 전하는 것이 목표이며 이를 위해서 전기적 인물의 삶의 주요 요소들을 연대기
적이며, 유기적으로, 또한 총체적으로 배열해 나간다. 전기 내러티브는 일정한 줄
거리를 갖게 되는데, 그 줄거리를 리듬감 있게 만들기 위해 서사는 갈등이 해결될
때까지 일관성을 유지해야 한다. 물론 이러한 리듬에 맞지 않는 요소들은 내러티
6) 박미정,「전기문 쓰기의 지도 요소 연구」,『작문연구』 제2집, 2006, pp.168-178. 
- 8 -
브에서 배제될 수밖에 없다. 이렇게 작가에 의해 치밀하게 구성된 전기 내러티브
는 독자와 관객이 작가의 관점과 정확성에 대해 의심하지 않고 주인공의 삶을 투
명하게 받아들이게 한다. 독자와 관객은 이렇게 ‘사실적으로’ 구성된 전기 내러티
브의 진실성에 대해 비판적 태도를 취하기가 어려워진다. 예를 들어 우리나라에서
가장 많은 전기가 쓰여진 인물 중 하나인 박정희의 전기들을 살펴보자. 우리도 세계에 자랑할 수 있는 인물이 있다. 그가 바로 박정희라는 인물이다. […] 한국 사람들의 눈에는 그가 희미하게 보일지 모르나 분명 세계 사람들의 눈
에는 찬란한 태양과 같은 존재이기도 했다.7)
이러한 정치 풍토를 뒤엎고 대한민국의 안녕과 질서, 그리고 위대한 발전을 도
모하자는 것이 5․16 군사혁명이었다. 그리고 거기에는 험난했던 세상에 굴복하지
않고, 의연하게 이 민족을 18년간 이끌어간 한 초인의 위대한 힘이 있다.8)
박정희는 지옥의 문턱을 넘나든 질풍노도의 세월로도, 장기집권으로도 오염되지
않았던 혼을 자신이 죽을 때까지 유지했다.[…] 소박한 정신의 소유자는 잡념과
위선의 포로가 되지 않으니 사물을 있는 그대로, 실용적으로, 정직하게 본다.[…]
김유신의 대당 결전 의지, 세종대왕의 한글 창제, 광해군의 국익 위주의 외교 정
책, 실학자들의 실사구시, 이승만의 반공 건국 노선을 잇는 박정희의 조국 근대
화 철학은 그의 소박한 인간됨에 뿌리를 두고 있다.9) 인용된 글 각각은 박정희 전기의 머리말의 일부다. 여기서 머리말의 일부를 인용
한 것은 머리말의 문장들이 작가들의 전기 집필 의도를 정확하게 반영하고 있기
때문이다. 이런 식의 의도로 기술된 전기는 독자들에게 교훈과 감동을 주기 위해
서 필연적으로 전기 인물을 영웅화하거나 신화화한다. 그러나 독자와 관객들은
‘사실적인 전기적 요소’에 기반한 전기문의 내러티브라는 전제 하에 이를 진실되
7) 정재경 『위인 박정희』, 집문당, 1992, p.5.
8) 김태형, 『영웅 박정희』, 인화, 1997, p.5.
9) 조갑제, 『내 무덤에 침을 뱉어라』, 조선일보사, 1998, pp10-11.
- 9 -
게 받아들이게 되며 대체로 작가의 의도에 따라갈 수밖에 없는 위치에 있다. 본 장에서 전기 영화의 내러티브를 비판적으로 검토하고 있는 구체적 이유는 다
음과 같다. 전기적 인물을 주인공으로 하는 것이 아닌, 온전히 상상만으로 만들어
진 허구적 인물을 재현하는 영화는 그가 아무리 영웅적인 존재라 하더라도 관객
들은 일단 그들이 허구적 인물이라는 전제 하에 받아들인다. 예를 들어 관객들이
터미네이터, <다이하드>10)의 맥클레인, <매트릭스>11)의 네오, 그리고 수퍼맨 같
은 영웅들을 스크린에서 볼 때 어느 정도 성숙한 관객이라면 이들이 아무리 영웅
적인 활약을 하더라도 허구적 내러티브 속의 허구적 인물로서 인식하기 마련이다. 그러나 전기적 인물을 재현하는 전기 영화인 경우에는 양상이 달라진다. 전기 영
화 속 인물들은 분명히 과거든, 현재든 실제로 존재한 인물이기에 관객들이 이들
에 대해 허구적 인물들을 바라보는 것과는 다른 식으로 반응할 수밖에 없다. 관객
들은 불가피하게 주인공들이 갖고 있는 전기적 요소들로 인해서 허구 영화 속 허
구적 인물들 보다 훨씬 더 사실적으로 전기적 인물의 삶을 받아들이게 된다. 예를
들어 장애인 운동선수를 다룬 허구 영화에서보다 실제 장애인 운동선수를 다룬
전기적 영화에서 훨씬 더 강력한 정서적 공감을 일으키며 받아들이게 되는 것이
다. 이는 앞서 살펴본 것처럼 전기 영화의 내러티브 양식이 사실적인 전기적 요소
들로 구성되고 있다고 믿기 때문이며, 이를 통해 전기 영화와 영화 속 전기적 인
물이 진실되다고 믿게 된다. 예를 들어 <독립 협회와 청년 리승만>12) 같은 전기 영화는 가장 전형적인 전통
적 전기 영화에 속한다. 이 영화느 이승만 초대 대통령의 애국 운동사를 중심으로
그의 영웅적 면모를 재현한 전기 영화로서 당시 동아일보에 실린 영화 홍보 광고
에는 다음과 같은 카피가 쓰여 있다. 이 영화는 이대통령 각하의 청년시절에 있어서 선각자로서의 숭고한 독립정신을
흥미진진하게 엮은 장편극영화로서 주연 김진규를 비롯해서 한국의 전연기자
10) 존 맥티어난, <다이 하드 Die Hard>, 미국, 1988, 131분. 11) 앤디 워쇼스키, 래리 워쇼스키, <매트릭스 Matrix>, 미국, 1999, 136분. 12) 신상옥, <독립 협회와 청년 리승만>, 한국, 1959, 133분.
- 10 -
600여명과 연5만명의 액스트라가 등장하는 한국 초유의 거작입니다. 이번 기회
에 한분도 빠짐없이 학생 공무원 지식인 그리고 일반 폔들의 영화감상을 바라마
지 않읍니다.13)
“이대통령 각하”의 “선각자로서의 숭고한 독립정신”을 표현하고자 한 영화는 이
승만의 삶에 대한 역사적 성찰이 전무한 상태에서 전 대통령을 신화적으로 미화
시키는데 전력하는 전형적인 멜로드라마적 전기 영웅에 대한 영화다. 뮤지션 레이
찰스가 주인공인 <레이>14)는 백인 중심의 미국 사회에서 소수자인 흑인 뮤지션
찰스 레이의 성공담으로 언뜻 보기엔 다른 양식의 전기 영화처럼 보인다. 그러나
영화는 결국 ‘아메리칸 드림’이라는 미국 주류의 성공 신화를 더욱 강화하는 내러
티브 구조로 나아간다. 마찬가지로 <쉰들러 리스트>15)는 나치즘에 속박된 유대인
들을 구출한다는 내러티브로서 나치즘이라는 폭력에 반하는 영화를 표방하지만
결국 할리우드식 영웅주의로 봉합된다는 점에서 전통적인 멜로드라마적 전기 영
웅 영화를 벗어나지 못한다. <도어즈>16)는 1960년대 문화적 아이콘으로서 밴드
도어즈의 리드 보컬 짐 모리슨을 주인공으로하는 전기 영화로 주류 문화에 저항
하는 반영웅으로서의 짐 모리슨의 파괴적 면모를 부각시키는 영화다. <간디>17)는
영국 식민지 치하의 인도에서 비폭력 독립 운동을 주도하고, 해방 이후 힌두교와
이슬람교라는 종교적 분쟁의 화해를 위해 투신하다가 결국 암살당하는 비극적 운
명을 살다간 간디가 주인공인 전기 영화로서 주류 정치 체제에 반하는 반영웅의
모습을 재현하고 있는 영화다. 이처럼 <도어즈>와 <간디>는 주류 문화와 체제에
반하는 전기적 인물을 주인공으로 내세움으로써 ‘할루우드식 영웅주의’로 나아가
지는 않지만 역시나 비극적 반영웅을 주인공으로 하는 멜로드라마적 주류 전기
영화를 벗어나지 않는다.
13) 1960년 1월 1일 동아일보 광고란, 원문 표기를 그대로 인용. 14) 테일러 핵포드, <레이 Ray>, 미국, 2004, 152분. 15) 스티븐 스필버그, <쉰들러 리스트 Schindler's List>, 미국, 1993, 192분. 16) 올리버 스톤, <도어즈 The Doors>, 미국, 1991, 138분. 17) 리처드 어텐보로, <간디 Gandhi>, 영국, 미국, 1982, 187분.
- 11 -
따라서 이승만, 레이, 쉰들러, 짐 모리슨, 간디 등이 전기 영화를 통해서 신화화
되는 양상은 수퍼맨이 신화화되는 양상과는 질적으로 다른 차원이 된다. 전기적
인물의 내러티브는 드라마의 교훈성과 완결성을 위해 전기적 요소들의 축소와 확
장, 배제와 첨가, 그리고 이를 통한 각색이 필연적으로 동반되게 마련이고, 이를
통해 전기적 인물의 실제와는 다른 굴절이 불가피하게 작동한다. 그러나 허구적
인물인 수퍼맨의 재현은 처음부터 오로지 상상력으로 인한 산물이기에 그런 굴절
로부터 자유롭다. 또한 전기 영화 내러티브로 인해 전기적 인물이 관객들의 강력한 호응을 받게
된다면 이는 또 다른 문제를 야기할 수 있다. 주인공이 수퍼맨이나 배트맨 같은
경우라면 소위 컬트와 팬덤이라는 차원에서 흥미와 재미를 위해 신화화되는 것이
겠지만, 주인공이 전기적 인물인 박정희나 쉰들러 같은 정치적 인물이라면, 그리
고 심지어 전기적 인물의 실제와는 많이 다르게 굴절된 내러티브라면, 이들에 대
한 신화화의 문제는 정치적, 윤리적 문제까지 포함한 복잡한 차원이 된다. 실제로
<쉰들러 리스트>의 상영 후 영화 속 쉰들러의 영웅적 이미지가 실제와는 너무 다
른 식으로 조작되었다는 비난이 일었었다. 세르주 다네는 역사적 사건으로서 홀로
코스트를 

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